Vergeltungswaffen-1 (Vengeance Weapon 1), also popularly called Flying Bomb, Buzz Bomb or Doodlebug, German jet-propelled missile of World War II, the forerunner of modern cruise missiles. More than 8,000 V-1s were launched against London from June 13, 1944, to March 29, 1945, with about 2,400 hitting the target area. A smaller number were fired against Belgium. The rockets were launched from the Pas-de-Calais area on the northern coast of France and subsequently from other sites in German-occupied western Europe. The V-1 was about 8 metres (25 feet) long, exclusive of the long tailpipe of its jet engine and had a wingspan of about 5.5 metres (20 feet). It was launched from catapult ramps or sometimes from aircraft. It carried an 850-kilogram (1,870-pound) explosive warhead at about 580 km (360 miles) per hour and had an average range of 240 km (150 miles).